Posts Tagged ‘cultural evolution’
Like many cities in the developed world these days I suppose, mine has a recycling programme. Basically, organic (kitchen) waste is put out in one can once a week for composting; cans, bottles and paper in another every two weeks for recycling; garbage in a third every two weeks as well for disposal; and garden waste seasonally in paper bags. In our household, the first two are accumulated in similar sized plastic bags in containers in the kitchen and put out in the cans every once in a while, while the third is put out bagless in the third can more frequently as it accumulates. Now here is the puzzle. Whenever I happen to put out the first two at the same time, always in similarly sized bags and therefore similar in volume, the organics for composting are always, always heavier than the garbage for disposal, and by quite a lot. Every time I wonder why that is. Some possibilities might be:
- it’s just idiosyncratic to our household. I suppose if we were repairing cars and disposing of scrap metal (not that anybody would be, scrap metal is valuable these days) but if for the sake of argument we were, it would be different. But I doubt if our experience is unique (otherwise I would not be wondering about it here!)
- biological organisms need protection against antagonists, parasites and predators, hence the denser (from our point of view, waste) – thick skins, peels etc. as well as needing to reproduce – seeds etc. I doubt if that is the answer either. After all, a lot of our garbage is in fact protective – various kinds of non-recyclable packaging like the tissue thin plastic bags that bulk foods and produce are put in and some heavier packaging which have properties designed to persuade you to purchase it, i.e. to serve its reproduction.
-culturally-evolved processes have become more efficient than biologically-evolved ones. Now that is an intriguing possibility.
- finally my (originally an engineer) husband’s suggested answer is that the organic material is wet and water is heavy. Hmm – this possibility admits of an experimental answer, if we dried out a bag of organics would the weights be similar? I have never been much of an experimenter but . . .
Not only articles, but also increasingly books on Darwinian-style cultural, social and economic evolution are being published. Great! In addition to ones previously mentioned here such as Runciman 2009, Blute 2010 and Hodgson & Knudsen 2010 – on my desk right now are:
Kate Distin. 2011. Cultural Evolution. Cambridge University Press.
Robert H. Frank. 2011. The Darwin Economy: Liberty, Competition, and the Common Good. Princeton University Press.
Maria Kronfeldner. 2011. Darwinian Creativity and Memetics. Acumen Publishing Ltd.
Alex Mesoudi. 2011. Cultural Evolution: How Darwinian Theory Can Explain Human Culture & Synthesize the Social Sciences. University of Chicago Press.
I haven’t read all four of these yet, but will be and am looking forward to it!
Research on cultural transmission and evolution just keeps on coming – so much so that I can hardly keep up! Great! For example, Andrew Whiten kindly drew my attention to a special issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B he co-edited with Robert Hinde, Kevin Laland and Christopher Stringer on the subject in April here. As well as an introduction by the co-editors titled “Culture evolves”, it includes 24 other reviews and research articles (many, despite their labels, are in substance a mixture of both.) The stated objective is to emphasize “important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other”.
The first eight papers are about social learning in animals – its economics, in fish, birds, mammals particularly meerkats, capuchin monkeys, chimps, and two on the relationship between social learning and other aspects of intelligence.
These are followed by four papers on the evolution of stone tools, eight on diverse other aspects of cultural evolution in humans including archaeology, linguistics, politics and experimental social psychology for example and ending back where we began in a sense with four more papers focusing on social learning, but now in modern humans, particularly children.
This is a very rich resource which I recommend highly for professionals and students alike.